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Which Voltage Sensitive Dye?
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What follows is an informal compilation of the voltage-sensitive dyes that have been used in a variety of preparations. The information includes dye source, signal size, staining conditions, and pharmacological- and photo-toxicity. In a few instances several dyes have been tested. In some cases the data is presented directly, in others a reference is given, and in some cases both. You can contact the individual scientist directly for additional or more up-to-date information.

The dyes with the label WW were synthesized by Jeff Wang and Alan Waggoner, then at Amherst College. Dyes labeled RH were synthesized by Rina Hildesheim and Amiram Grinvald at the Weizmann Institute. Dyes labeled JPW were synthesized by Joe Wuskell and Les Loew at the University of Connecticut Health Center. We depend on them.

Dissolving the dyes can be tricky in that they may look dissolved but still be in small crystals. You can check this out by filtering through a Millipore filter. If the dye was not dissolved, try modest warming (e.g. 50°C). Hydrophobic dyes will require more extensive procedures involving ethanol and Pluronic F127.

Embryonic chick and rat heart Adult frog and rat heart Embryonic chick and rat CNS (6/99)
Rat, neonatal cardiac myocytes in culture (6/99)

Signal type: Absorption
Dye names: NK2761, NK2776, NK3224, NK3225
Supplier: Nippon Kankoh Shikiso Kenkyu-sho
Concentration: 0.2 mg/ml
Staining duration: 20 minutes
Signal-to-noise ratio: 5:1 (guinea pig); 3:1 (mouse)
Fractional change ( F/F): 10-4 to 10-3
Pharmacology: negligible
Phototoxicity: negligible

#Kamino, K., Hirota, A., and Fujii, S. (1981 ) Localization of pacemaker activity in early embryonic heart monitored using voltage sensitive dyes. Nature. Apr 16;290(5807):595-7
*Momose-Sato, Y., Sato, K., Sakai, T., Hirota, A., Matsutani K., and Kamino, K. (1995) Evaluation of optimal voltage sensitive dyes for optical monitoring of embryonic neural activity. J. Membrane Biology 144: 167-176.

* Rohr S, Salzberg BM. (1994) Multiple Site Optical Recording of Transmembrane Voltage (MSORTV) in Patterned Growth Heart Cell Cultures: Assessing Electrical Behavior, with Microsecond Resolution, on a Cellular and Subcellular Scale. Biophysical Journal 67(3):1301-15.

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